A Brief Overview of the TITLE 24 ENERGY EFFICIENCY CODE

by Mark Gallant, CEPE

Gallant Energy Consulting
Title 24 Energy Calculations


Title 24

When?

1973 Oil Embargo

Why?

An acute awareness of need to conserve energy

Who?

California Energy Commission

What?

1978 Title 24 Energy Regulations


California Energy Commission

Goal

Save Energy through Conservation

Result

Nation’s Most Innovative and Successful Energy Efficiency Programs California ranks 6th out of the 50 states in per capita energy savings. Overall energy use per household has actually dropped since 1980.
Heating and cooling now cost 75% less than in older homes due to the new standards.

Comfort

Economic Advantages
Homeowner saves $$
State economy more stable
State exports technologies and expertise
Avoid building more power plants
Environmental Health
Avoid air pollution, and potential spills
Reduce contribution to global warming

Energy Efficiency

Since 1977, energy savings of more than $11 billion

By 2011, savings can grow to more than $43 billion: enough energy to power the entire state of Texas for one year.

Significant source of funds for other economic activities within the state.

California benefits from:
· Energy security
· Improved air quality & cleaner environment
· Improved economic position
· Preserved natural resources

Homeowners & tenants will experience:
· Quieter, more comfortable buildings
· Stabilized, lower monthly energy bills
· Long-term cost savings


Assuring Our Future

By the Year 2013 with Current Standards

Avoid Building Power Plants
21 power plants the size of the now closed Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Plant (800 MW)
(Total of 16,500 megawatts)

Reduce Environmental Pollution
Energy savings reduce carbon emissions by approximately 1,350,000 tons.

Reduce Dependence on Fossil Fuels
Lessens California’s vulnerability to imported oil prices.


Compliance with Title 24

1. Choose Compliance Option (Performance)

2. Meet appropriate Mandatory Measures (MF-1R)
Must appear on plans

3. Complete Certificate of Compliance (CF-1R)
Must appear on plans

4. Complete Installation Certificate (CF-6R)
Post at job site (e.g. in the garage)

5. Complete Insulation Certificate (IC-1)
Post at job site (e.g. in the garage)

6. Deliver a Home Owner’s Manual to the owner
Include CF-1R, MF-1R, CF-6R, IC-1


Certificate of Compliance (CF-1R)

BUILDING SHELL INSULATION

R-Value

Indicates how well a material prevents heat from flowing through it.

A Higher R-Value is more energy efficient

U-Factor

A measure of how much heat travels through an assembly or material.

A Lower U-Factor is more energy efficient

SHGC

SHGC (Solar Heat Gain Coefficient) is a measure of the effectiveness of a fenestration product or window covering to stop solar gains through the window.

A Lower SHGC is more energy efficient


FENESTRATION

A Fenestration Product is any transparent or translucent material plus any sash, frame and dividers, in the envelope of a building, including, but not limited to: windows, sliding glass doors, french doors, skylights, curtain walls, and garden windows.

Fenestration products account for up to 50 percent of residential space conditioning energy.

NFRC* U-Factor / SHGC

The fenestration product installer should be sure the products have the temporary label on the center of the glazing which meets the compliance requirements (CF-1R). The temporary label must remain on the product until the field inspector has inspected it.

* National Fenestration Rating Council

THERMAL MASS

Thermal mass is a solid or liquid material used to store heat for later heating use or for reducing cooling requirements.

The more mass a building has, the slower its interior temperatures will change.

Examples of thermal mass include, but not limited to: Hard surfaced slab floors, masonry walls and fireplaces, gyp board walls and ceilings in excess of 1/2 inch thickness, and tile counter-tops and shower walls.

Table G-15 lists recommendations on when it is appropriate to take credit for a particular mass material.

The intent of these guidelines is to prevent taking thermal mass credit for floor materials that are unlikely to be covered with carpeting at the time of building occupancy


HVAC SYSTEMS

Heating System Efficiency

Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE) The standard AFUE for gas furnaces is 80%. Non-central units such as gas wall furnaces may have a lower AFUE rating.

Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF) The standard HSPF for electric heat pumps is 6.8. Electric baseboard heating and radiant panels have a lower HSPF rating.

Cooling System Efficiency

Seasonal Efficiency Ratio (SEER) The standard SEER for both air conditioners and heat pumps is 13.0. Non-central units such as room heat pumps may have a lower SEER rating.

A higher HVAC efficiency rating is more energy efficient


WATER HEATING SYSTEMS

Water heater energy use accounts for about a quarter of California’s total residential energy consumption.

Energy Factor (EF) It is the ratio of energy output to energy consumption of a water heater, expressed in equivalent units, under designated operating conditions over a 24-hour use cycle. The standard EF is 0.575. The energy factor takes into account the effects of the water heater’s internal insulation.

Recovery Efficiency (large storage tank water heaters) It is the measure of the percentage of heat from combustion of gas or oil which is transferred to the water. The standard Recovery Efficiency is 76%.

A higher Water Heater efficiency rating is more energy efficient

External Insulation R-Value

An external water heater blanket is mandatory if the R-value listed on the CF-1R is greater than zero even if the water heater has internal insulation.



CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE: RESIDENTIAL                    Page 1          CF-1R
===============================================================================
Project Title.......... Sample SF Subdivision             Date........ 12/09/97
Project Address........ 123 Anystreet            *******  ---------------------
                        San Diego                *v4.50*  | _________________ |
Documentation Author... Mark Gallant, CEPE       *******  | Building Permit # |
                        Gallant Energy Consulting          | _________________ |
                        508 W Mission Ave Ste 201         | Plan Check / Date |
                        Escondido, CA  92025              | _________________ |
                        760-743-5408                      | Field Check/ Date |
Climate Zone........... 07                                ---------------------
Compliance Method...... MICROPAS4 v4.50 for 1995 Standards by Enercomp, Inc.   
===============================================================================
|       MICROPAS4 v4.50  File-TEST  Wth-CTZ07S92  Program-FORM CF-1R          |
|       User#-MP1657  User-Gallant Energy Consulting  Run-Typical House        |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                              GENERAL INFORMATION
                              -------------------
           Conditioned Floor Area.....  3170 sf
           Building Type..............  Single Family Detached
           Construction Type .........  New
           Building Front Orientation.  Cardinal - N,E,S,W
           Number of Dwelling Units...  1
           Number of Stories..........  1
           Floor Construction Type....  Slab On Grade
           Glazing Percentage.........  20.6 % of floor area
           Average Glazing U-value....  0.78 Btu/hr-sf-F

                           BUILDING SHELL INSULATION
                           -------------------------
Component     Frame  Cavity  Sheathing  Insul  Assembly
  Type        Type   R-value  R-value  R-value U-value Location/Comments
------------ ------- -------- -------- ------- ------- ------------------------
Wall          Wood    R-13     R-0      R-13     0.088 R-13 Typical          
Wall          Wood    R-13     R-0      R-13     0.081 R-13 Garage           
Roof          Wood    R-30     R-0      R-30     0.031 R-30 Typical          
Door          n/a     R-0      R-n/a    R-0      0.330 Solid Wood            
SlabEdge      n/a     R-0      R-n/a    R-0      0.900 To Outside            
SlabEdge      n/a     R-0      R-n/a    R-0      0.720 To Outside            
SlabEdge      n/a     R-0      R-n/a    R-0      0.550 To Garage             
SlabEdge      n/a     R-0      R-n/a    R-0      0.500 To Garage             

                                  FENESTRATION
                                  ------------
                                # of Interior                    Over-
                    Area   U-   Pan- Shading/        Exterior    hang/ Framing
Orientation         (sf)  Value  es  Description     Shading     Fins  Type
------------------- ----- ----- ---- --------------- ----------- ---- ---------
Window   Front (N)  129.0 0.870  2   None            None        Yes  Metal    
Window   Front (N)    4.5 0.720  2   None            None        Yes  Metal    
Window   Right (W)  102.0 0.870  2   None            None        None Metal    
Window   Right (W)   30.0 0.720  2   None            None        None Metal    
Window   Back  (S)  114.0 0.870  2   None            None        Yes  Metal    
Door     Back  (S)  168.0 0.550  2   None            None        Yes  Wood     
Window   Left  (E)  104.0 0.870  2   None            None        None Metal    

CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE: RESIDENTIAL Page 2 CF-1R =============================================================================== Project Title.......... Sample SF Subdivision Date........ 12/09/97 =============================================================================== | MICROPAS4 v4.50 File-TEST Wth-CTZ07S92 Program-FORM CF-1R | | User#-MP1657 User-Gallant Energy Consulting Run-Typical House | ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- THERMAL MASS ------------ Area Thickness Type Exposed (sf) (in) Location/Comments ------------ -------------- ------ --------- ------------------------ SlabOnGrade Yes 377 3.5 Exposed SlabOnGrade No 2793 3.5 Covered HVAC SYSTEMS ------------ Minimum Duct Duct Thermostat Equipment Type Efficiency Location R-value Type --------------- ------------ ------------- ------- ------------ Furnace 0.800 AFUE Attic R-4.2 Setback ACSplit 10.00 SEER Attic R-4.2 Setback WATER HEATING SYSTEMS --------------------- Number Tank External in Energy Size Insulation Tank Type Heater Type Distribution Type System Factor (gal) R-value ------------ ----------- ------------------- ------ -------- ------ ---------- Storage Gas Standard 1 0.60 EF 50 R-0 SPECIAL FEATURES/REMARKS ------------------------ This is a multiple orientation building with no orientation restrictions. This printout is for the front facing North. _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________
CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE: RESIDENTIAL Page 3 CF-1R =============================================================================== Project Title.......... Sample SF Subdivision Date........ 12/09/97 =============================================================================== | MICROPAS4 v4.50 File-TEST Wth-CTZ07S92 Program-FORM CF-1R | | User#-MP1657 User-Gallant Energy Consulting Run-Typical House | ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- COMPLIANCE STATEMENT -------------------- This certificate of compliance lists the building features and performance specifications needed to comply with Title-24, Parts 1 and 6 of the California Code of Regulations, and the administrative regulations to implement them. This certificate has been signed by the individual with overall design responsibility. When this certificate of compliance is submitted for a single building plan to be built in multiple orientations, any shading feature that is varied is indicated in the Special Features/ Remarks section. DESIGNER or OWNER DOCUMENTATION AUTHOR Name.... _________________________ Name.... Mark Gallant, CEPE Company. ABC Company Company. Gallant Energy Consulting Address. 101 Anystreet Address. 508 W Mission Ave Ste 201 San Diego CA 92101 Escondido, CA 92025 Phone... 619-555-1212 Phone... 760-743-5408 License. _________________________ Signed.. _________________________ Signed.. _________________________ (date) (date) ENFORCEMENT AGENCY Name.... _________________________ Title... _________________________ Agency.. _________________________ _________________________ Phone... _________________________ Signed.. _________________________ (date)

Bottom Line

Risks of non-compliance - avoid potential litigation Turn the regulations into an advantage?
How to show compliance?

Have accurate calculations prepared, and submitted to Building Department Plans and specs clearly include energy features, and CF-1R Build to plan, or get revisions approved Homeowner's Manual receives: CF-1R, MF-1R, CF-6R, IC-1 Summary:

Title 24 is the minimum requirement !

Early design and efficiency strategies can result in buildings which are more comfortable, environmentally friendly, cheaper to operate, and more marketable !


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